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“Live Like Francis: Reflections on Franciscan Life in the World.”

“Live Like Francis: Reflections on Franciscan Life in the World.” By Leonard Foley, OFM and Jovian Weigel, OFM. Edited by Diane Houdek, SFO. Ohio: Franciscan Media, 2016. 188 pages. Kindle: $9.99; Nook: $8.49; Paperback: $15.06.
 
Since the election of Pope Francis in 2013, many people, both Catholic and otherwise, have taken a closer look at the little Saint of Assisi who was the inspiration for the pontiff’s choice of name. Although St. Francis himself has always enjoyed a certain popularity – note the many statues of him for sale at garden centers, for instance – it is this pope’s lifestyle which has drawn more thoughtful attention to who his namesake really was.
 
That is why this book, “Live Like Francis,” will probably speak to great numbers of people. This present version (there were earlier ones, but this “iteration…opens this vision to people both in and beyond the Secular Franciscan community”) is more than a mere introduction to the life and spirituality of the saint; it is an invitation to journey with him, reflecting on his ideals and learning how to incorporate his vision into a world much in need of what he has to teach. As such, it is not a book meant to be consumed in one or two sittings; rather, it is a year-long pilgrimage that the reader is invited to make into the heart of God by way of the heart of Francis.
 
Indeed, the book is structured to allow the reader to do precisely that.  Divided into 52 reflections, one for each week of the year, we are invited to contemplate the Franciscan way of life through Scripture, writings by and about Francis, how these can apply to daily life and finally, a prayer to better understand and put into practice what we have just read. Sometimes the reflections seem deceptively simple but, as the authors, Father Leonard Foley, OFM and Father Jovian Weigel, OFM, assure us even before we begin, “You will find that you progress a great deal, even though the growth may seem almost imperceptible at the time.”
 
“The foundation of the Franciscan way of life is Jesus Christ and no other.”  This is what Francis discovered in the church of San Damiano centuries ago, and it is what the reader is invited to rediscover here and now. As the authors note, “To be Franciscan, then, is to attempt to be Christian, a disciple.”  This, of course, is not an easy path to follow, which is why Fathers Foley and Weigel bring us along one step, one reflection at a time. 
 
Almost without noticing, by mid-year, readers discover that they have entered deep waters, indeed, but by then, they are hooked. Like Francis, they discover that there really is no going back, just a greater and greater going forward. And that means taking what has been learned so far and bringing it into the world. “If we choose to follow Jesus and to lead others to His truth, we become modern-day apostles,” the authors note. “As part of our commitment to live like Francis, we are called to go out of ourselves to bring Jesus’s gifts of faith, hope and love to life in tangible, practical ways.”
 
Ultimately, of course, this is the point. As the subtitle of the book reminds us, these are reflections on “Franciscan Life in the World,” which is why the reflections in Parts Four and Five move us out of ourselves and into the mainstream of life. By the end, we have been brought on a pilgrimage that starts within but that must, to be genuine, have an impact on what is outside of ourselves. “Reach out beyond yourself as Francis did,” the authors conclude. “Reach out as Jesus did….Make your daily decisions on the basis of what Jesus said and did. Believe that the Spirit continually calls us together to form the Body of Jesus today.”
 
Author bio
 
Sadly, the two authors of this book have passed away, but not before they each added significantly to both Catholic and Franciscan spirituality.
 
Father Leonard Foley, OFM, was a long-time editor of St. Anthony Messenger magazine and a founding editor of Homily Helps and Weekday Homily helps. A Franciscan friar for 62 years and a priest for 54, he was well known in his later years as a popular retreat master and a speaker for adult education programs. Although he wrote upwards of 15 books for St. Anthony Messenger Press, his best-selling work was “Believing in Jesus: A Popular Overview of the Catholic Faith.” Father Foley died on Easter Sunday morning in 1994.
 
Father Jovian Wiegel, OFM, was active with the secular Franciscans at the local, regional and national levels for more than 30 years. He professed his solemn vows as a Franciscan in 1943 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1948; he began his Third Order/ Secular Franciscan Order ministry in 1950 as a spiritual assistant.  He died peacefully in 2008.
 
Diane Houdek, SFO, who edited “Live Like Francis: Reflections on Franciscan Life in the World,” is the digital media editor for Franciscan Media and has written extensively for them.
 
 
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St. Charles Borromeo

St. Charles Borromeo
 
To say that St. Charles Borromeo moved in the highest circles of his time would be an understatement.  Born in 1538 into Milanese nobility, he was not only related to the powerful Medici family of Florence, Italy, but was also a nephew of Pope Pius IV, who ruled from 1559-1565. Because of his family connections, Charles became a prominent member of the administration of the Church, even while he was still a layman; the unexpected death of both his father and elder brother, however, set him on a path that would become synonymous not with power and prestige but with charity and reform.
 
The Church of Charles’ time was undergoing a period of great turbulence; Martin Luther had instigated the Protestant Reformation and Rome was responding with a Counter-Reformation. Although many religious orders had been founded to help with Church renewal – the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, being perhaps the most prominent of these – an ecumenical council of the entire Church was necessary to complete needed reforms. The Council of Trent, which convened from 1545 to 1563, thus became known as the Reform Council. Due primarily to political circumstances, the Council met in a series of three periods, and it was during the last one, from 1562 to 1563, that Charles Borromeo proved himself to be such an able leader.
 
Charles was both intelligent and well educated, thus perfectly suited to the weighty responsibilities that were ultimately placed upon him. Although his family pressured him to marry when both his father and elder brother died, he chose instead to become a priest. It was about the time of his ordination (at age 25) that he participated in St. Ignatius Loyola’s Spiritual Exercises, an experience that changed him radically. From then on, until the end of his life, his purpose became not power but holiness, and he eschewed all luxury, devoting himself instead to charitable works and the poor.
 
Charles was named cardinal-archbishop of Milan in 1561, but because he was so involved in the workings of the Council, he was not permitted to actually live in his diocese until the Council proceedings were concluded. He deserves the lion’s share of the credit for keeping Trent in session, even as internal circumstances threatened to break it up. He conducted all correspondence at the end and guided the drafting of the Roman Catechism.
 
The close of the Council did not mean the end of Charles’ work. Upon returning to Milan, he found his local church much in need of religious education and practical reform. To help address these issues, he established the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine and founded seven seminaries designed to better educate and reform the clergy. 
 
Not everyone greeted his work with enthusiasm, however. Because he insisted on strict enforcement of ecclesiastical discipline, there was an attempt on his life by a group of disgruntled monks in 1569. Though he was seriously wounded in the attack, he was not killed.
 
Charles believed strongly that if he were to insist on reform, he himself had to lead by example. When famine struck Milan in 1570 and the plague followed from 1576 to 1578, it was the archbishop who fed and cared for thousands of his fellow citizens, even as civil authorities fled the city. Although the circumstances of his birth would have entitled him to wealth, luxury and honors, he did without them all to become as poor as his people. 
 
Worn out with work and the burdens that had been his since his youth, Charles Borromeo died in 1584 at the age of 46. The patron saint of catechists, catechumens and seminarians, his feast day is Nov. 4.
 
 
Sources for this article include:
 
www.americancatholic.org
 
www.catholiconline.com
 
Keogh, William. "St. Charles Borromeo." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 
 
“Saint Charles Borromeo“. CatholicSaints.Info. 26 May 2016.
 
 
 

One Ordinary Sunday: A Meditation on the Mystery of the Mass

“One Ordinary Sunday:  A Meditation on the Mystery of the Mass.”  By Paula Huston.  Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 2016.  256 pages.  Paperback:  $11.84.  Kindle:  $9.99.  Nook: $10.99.
 
In Paula Huston’s latest book, "One Ordinary Sunday," it is obvious from the first page that what she is presenting to the reader is anything but ordinary.  Subtitled “A Meditation on the Mystery of the Mass,” this book is both catechesis and prayer, with a good dose of spiritual journey woven throughout. It is like a deep conversation over coffee with a good friend, talking about the things that matter most.
 
Huston is a convert to Catholicism and so came to the Mass somewhat late in life, which is one of the features I found most appealing about this book. Because she is looking at every part of the Mass with “fresh eyes,” even lifelong Catholics can discover new insights into a very familiar form of worship.  By spending significant time reflecting on each prayer and reading and gesture, she emphasizes that everything that takes place is there for an important reason; nothing is accidental.
 
The framework for the book is indeed, one Sunday – specifically the 14th Sunday in Ordinary Time (from the readings – which she includes in the text – it is Cycle A in the Lectionary.)  As a lector in my own parish, I particularly appreciated the lengthy explanation she gave regarding both the meaning of Scripture and its history.  She weaves in, for instance, a trip to Italy and how Michelangelo’s statue of David allowed her to explain this ancient king’s significance to a young exchange student who had grown up in what amounted to a spiritual vacuum – a vacuum, she points out, which is beginning to pervade all of Western society. In fact, she fills in quite a bit of both the theology and spiritual culture contained in what we know as the Liturgy of the Word.  For Catholics who feel that they are somewhat lacking when it comes to grounding in Scripture, her chapters on the four readings at Mass will be most welcome and informative.
 
Her teaching background remains evident in the rest of the book as well. Nothing is mentioned which is not explained fully. For instance, when talking about preparing the altar for the Consecration, she includes a short vocabulary “lesson” about everything the priest will use.  When talking about the offering of bread and wine, she explains how these elements “represent a cooperative effort between God and man” and why the Eucharistic prayer is formed the way it is. 
 
From beginning to end, her grasp of history is thorough and her grounding in theology is sound. In spite of that, however, she is not afraid to share with readers her own struggle to understand and live out the faith she so strongly professes.   There is always the sense that she could be the lady sitting next to you in the pew.
 
Which brings me to the final strength of this book; everything she says takes place in the context of a real Mass celebrated by real people. By the end, we feel as if we know her fellow parishioners almost as well as she does. Not only does she share their names with us, but their individual ministries, a bit of their personal history and why she feels so close to them. Consequently, when she reaches the epilogue, written a year after the rest of the book comes to an end, we can both feel at home with those who are still at St. Patrick’s and mourn those who have passed on.
 
“'One Ordinary Sunday' began as an attempt to explain the mysterious power of the Mass in my own life,” Huston says in the preface to this book. In doing this so splendidly, she has helped us reflect on its meaning and power in our own as well.
 
About the author
 
Like many converts to Catholicism, Paula Huston’s journey to the faith was long and not always straight.  “The first time I attended Mass I was nearly 40,” she admits in the preface to "One Ordinary Sunday." “And, like a lot of Sixties’ kids, for 20 years before that, I’d been away from church entirely.” But the “Hound of Heaven” she added, quoting from Francis Thompson’s famous poem of the same name, “was clearly after me.”
 
Huston eventually became, not only a Catholic, but a vowed oblate of the Camaldolese Benedictines.  The fiction writing she pursued as a National Endowment for the Arts fellow grew into spiritual non-fiction, and her first project was "Signatures of Grace," for which she was both contributor and co-editor.  She has also written "Simplifying the Soul: Lenten Practices to Renew Your Spirit," "A Season of Mystery: 10 Spiritual Practices for Embracing a Happier Second Half of Life," and "Forgiveness: Following Jesus into Radical Loving."
 
She and her husband, Mike, own a small, four-acre farm on the central coast of California.  She divides her time between that, her four young grandchildren, mentoring MFA students in creative non-fiction at Seattle Pacific University and the Camaldolese.
 
 
 
 
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St. John Leonardi

St. John (or Giovanni) Leonardi was born about 1541 into an interesting time in European history.  The Protestant Reformation was underway, and the Church, though disagreeing with the separation that had occurred, acknowledged that reforms within Catholicism needed to be undertaken.
 
The youngest of seven children, Giovanni at first studied to be a pharmacist, but by the age of 27 had decided that his true vocation was to the priesthood.  Ordained in 1572, Giovanni soon attracted a small group of men who were also interested in religious life.  He became their spiritual director, and the communal form of life they lived eventually led to the formation of the Clerks Regular of the Mother of God.
 
Becoming a recognized order did not go smoothly, however; the political pressures of the time forced Giovanni and his fellow priests into a kind of exile outside their native town of Lucca.  When they were finally approved in 1595, Giovanni sought to aid the efforts of the Church’s Counter Reformation by educating both the clergy and the laity, emphasizing the need for holiness for all.  His work laid the foundation for the Vatican department now known as the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.
 
St. Giovanni Leonardi died in 1609 of disease contracted while tending the victims of plague.  His feast day is Oct. 9, and he is the patron of pharmacists.
 

St. Faustina Kowalska

Sometimes that which seems most ordinary is, in fact, the hiding place of something truly extraordinary.  Such was the case with Maria Faustina Kowalska, who is known today as the saint through whom God chose to communicate His Divine Mercy to the world.  Her humility was such that most people didn’t realize what a remarkable soul they had had the privilege of encountering until after her death.
 
St. Maria Faustina was born Helena Kowalska in a small village in western Poland in 1905.  The third of ten children in a poor family, Helena received only three years of formal education before going to work as a housekeeper in the homes of more well-to-do families.  She had had a desire early on to enter religious life, but her parents were reluctant to give her permission to do so.  Consequently, it was not until she was 20 that she entered the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy in Warsaw, Poland, where she took the name Sister Maria Faustina of the Most Blessed Sacrament.
 
The Order to which Maria Faustina belonged was devoted in particular to the care and education of troubled young women.  Although her place within the congregation was very unpretentious – Maria was a cook, gardener and porter in various houses during her 13 years as a nun – it was not long before she began to receive visions and revelations.  These she recorded in a diary which her confessors – and God – requested her to keep.
 
The essence of these messages to Sister Maria and the world was the incredible extent of God’s Divine Mercy.  It was a time when many Catholics harbored an image of God as such a strict judge that some were tempted to despair of ever being truly forgiven by Him.  What God revealed to Sister Maria was quite the opposite:  “Today I am sending you with My mercy to the people of the whole world,” Jesus once said to her.  “I do not want to punish aching mankind, but I desire to heal it, pressing it to My Merciful Heart” (Diary, 1588).
 
Outwardly, Sister Maria did not seem to be anything special.  She went about her work within the order with kindness and serenity, observing its Rule and treating those around her with mercy and love.  In her heart, she grew in child-like trust in God, offering her own life in imitation of His for the good of others.
 
In the 1930’s, Sister Maria was directed by Jesus to have a picture painted of Him containing the inscription “Jesus, I Trust in You.”  The image, which she commissioned in 1935, also has a red and white light emanating from Christ’s Sacred Heart and is the portrait of Divine Mercy which hangs in many chapels and churches throughout the world today.
 
Sister Maria Faustina died in 1938 of tuberculosis.  Although she had a reputation for holiness, it would be three decades before her beatification process would begin.  Her diary, written as it was by a barely literate woman, was composed phonetically with no punctuation or quotation marks, so when a bad translation of it reached Rome in 1958, it was initially rejected as being heretical.  However, when a later and more accurate translation was undertaken, the Vatican realized that Sister Maria had actually left the world, not a heretical document, but a beautiful work proclaiming God’s love.  Called “Divine Mercy in My Soul," it has been translated into more than 20 languages. 
 
Sister Maria Faustina was canonized in 2000, and her feast day is commemorated on Oct. 5; Divine Mercy Sunday is celebrated on the Second Sunday of Easter.
 
 
 

Going home

About six years ago, I did what Thomas Wolfe said you can’t do:  I went home again.  Home, by the way, is a small town just over the “Blue Line” into the Adirondack Park, a pretty place nestled by the confluence of the Mighty Hudson and Great Sacandaga rivers.  Tourists love it here and, after many decades away, it turns out that I still do too.

 One of the things I returned to was the small, white, clapboard Catholic church I was raised in.  When I was young it was called Holy Infancy, but in 2009 it, like many other parishes, merged with its neighbor, in this case, Immaculate Conception, and became Holy Mother and Child Parish.  The name is a good compromise and most times I remember to call it that, although every now and again I slip.  No matter, everyone knows what I mean.

It still smells of wood and incense and Murphy’s Oil Soap; the Rosary Altar Society used to clean the church every Saturday morning and those fragrances were a comfort to me even then.  As the youngest member of the group (my mother always brought me along “to help”), I was the 5-year-old who exchanged the burned out votive “stubs” for new candles.  All the while I worked, the statue of Mary that watched over that side of the church kept me company.  It was all of a piece — my mother, the Blessed Mother, the candles and the quiet.  All in all, not a bad way to spend part of Saturday morning.

The votive candles are gone now, and so are those wonderful ladies who were the “grown-ups” in my young life.  Actually, that’s not entirely true; one of the biggest surprises awaiting me when I walked back into the vestibule of that church was the inescapable fact that, while I was gone, I, too, had somehow morphed into a grown-up.  I was no longer 5 years old, and there was an unmistakable sense that those ladies had been waiting for this moment for a long time.  You are home, they seemed to say, and there is work to be done.

So I would like to counter Thomas Wolfe with another writer.  “You can never go home again,” said Maya Angelou, “But the truth is you can never leave home, so it’s all right.”  Spot on, Ms. Angelou.  It is good to be back.

Article written by Kay Winchester, Vermont Catholic staff writer.

Spiritually Able: A Parent’s Guide to Teaching the Faith to Children with Special Needs

One of the first impressions I took away from “Spiritually Able” is that it is a very hands-on, cut-to-the-chase book.  Authors David and Mercedes Rizzo, whose daughter, Danielle, is non-verbal and autistic, know that Catholic families like theirs are already very aware of what life with a special needs child is like.  That part doesn’t require an explanation.  What is needed, however, are practical, detailed suggestions for teaching the faith to these special children. This is precisely what the Rizzos set out to do in “Spiritually Able,” and they do it well.

That is not to say that they offer no narrative; both Rizzos speak very movingly about what their lives were like both before and after Danielle was born. (They have two older sons and one younger daughter.)  They are also very honest about their own struggle to come to terms with her disability: “Danielle’s autism has been our greatest challenge in life, but it has also been one of our greatest blessings,” they write.  “It has tested our faith and strengthened it, and it has taught us to trust God even when things turn our far different from what we expected.”  Indeed, readers who do not have a disabled child will still be inspired by the family’s commitment to Danielle, their faith and her religious education.

So following a brief introduction, the book moves quickly into nuts-and-bolts information, becoming a detailed, “how-to” resource for parents concerning the faith education of their special needs child.  While a great deal of that advice revolves around teaching and reinforcing concepts at home, the Rizzos are very clear that their suggestions are meant to complement, not replace, any parish religious education program.  They were lucky enough to have a special needs catechist in their own church who was able to work with Danielle, but for a while they also took advantage of a special program offered at a neighboring Catholic parish.  The rule of thumb, they advise, is for parents to seek out and use whatever resources are available to them in the parishes and places where they live.

“Spiritually Able” covers a wide range of religious topics and experiences, from familiarizing your child with the church building itself, to attendance at Mass, reception of the sacraments, inclusion in parish life, and Christian service.  Each chapter in the book focuses on one theme and follows a similar format: The Rizzos first share their story “to set the stage” and then move into two or three lessons which reinforce the concept or sacrament being taught.  Activities are adaptable and several suggestions are offered for how each can be utilized with children of varying abilities.  Finally, every chapter concludes with suggestions on how to move from the lesson to real life, plus a link to Scripture and a meditation geared toward parents.  To complement the book, the Rizzos have also helped develop special “Adaptive Kits,” which aid catechists and parents with both sacramental preparation and general faith formation.  These, like “Spiritually Able,” are available through Loyola Press.

One more important point should also be mentioned — even those without special needs children in their lives can benefit from reading this book because it helps promote an awareness of what these families encounter every day.  “Few people outside the community of children with special needs and their families understand how much of a challenge it can be,” the Rizzos conclude.  “We applaud the efforts of all parents of children with special needs as they struggle to live an authentic life that honors God and those in their care.”


About the Author:
For David and Mercedes Rizzo, the book, “Spiritually Able” and the “Adaptive Kits” that can be used in conjunction with it, are simultaneously a labor of and lesson in love.  Widely recognized in the world of Catholic bloggers as experts on the topic of working with special needs children and adults, their writing and advice have appeared on sites associated with their publisher, Loyola Press, as well as the popular parenting site www.catholicmom.com.

Although their daughter, Danielle, was certainly the inspiration for this book, they each come from a background which helped prepare them for working with individuals like her.  Mercedes, a certified teacher who has taught in both public and parochial schools, has provided support to children who have individualized education plans; David is a physical therapist who has worked extensively with both adults and children challenged by disabilities.  In addition, he has been a presenter at various religious education congresses as well as The National Catholic Partnership for Disabilities and the National Conference for Catechetical Leadership Annual Conference.  

The Rizzos have been married for more than 20 years and have three children in addition to Danielle:  Brendan, Colin and Shannon.  They reside in Marlton, N.J., and are members of St. Isaac Jogues Parish there.
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Book Review "River of Grace: Creative Passages Through Difficult Times" By Susan Bailey.

One of the first things that attracted me to this book was the fact that it involved both hard times and a kayak.  I have a friend who has known both; more than 20 years ago, her youngest son was permanently paralyzed as the result of a hockey accident.  In the intervening years, as he and every member of his family has had to come to grips with the enormity of what  happened and how radically it changed their lives, my friend discovered that some of her spiritual healing came in the form of a kayak.  Even now, she tells me, there is such peace that comes from sitting quietly on the river, letting God’s spirit wash over her.

Indeed, the subtitle of the first chapter of “River of Grace” could have been written by my friend.  It simply states, “What God Taught Me through My Kayak” and for author Susan Bailey, it was also this simple boat that signaled the beginning of a profound and unexpected journey into the heart of God. 

This book has many pluses to recommend it.  To begin with, it is a highly personal memoir, written in a tone which allows the reader to walk with the author as she essentially goes on a spiritual pilgrimage.  Like any such journey, this one will take her from a place of darkness, confusion and near despair, into the presence of light, peace and the authentic self God was calling her to be.  It also opens her to God’s presence in ways and places she never expected.  “I grew up thinking that grace came from a church building, granted by a priest during a formal gathering such as the Mass,” she says.  “It never occurred to me that it could come from elsewhere, especially something as mundane as a boat.”

Bailey deals with life events that most readers can relate to:  the death of both her parents, a near financial disaster for her and her husband, the loss – happily temporary – of an ability that she thought she would have forever and as such, took for granted, and a significant change in her husband’s spiritual life that reverberated through the whole family.  The fact that she presents her reactions to these things truthfully, without any pious sugar-coating, makes this a genuine and honest work.  Because of that, the insights and advice she shares about how to be open to God’s grace are genuine and honest as well.

In addition to the elements of memoir, the book can also serve as a kind of retreat.  Each chapter contains both questions for the reader to reflect on – through journaling, if he or she is comfortable with that – as well as what the author calls “Flow Lessons” – practices toward grace which are more tactile in nature.  The author also references her web site, www.beasone.org, for further resources, videos, and “flow lessons.”  Not every reader will necessarily be comfortable with or want to do every activity she suggests, but the book works whether all or some of the practices are followed – or if the reader chooses to read and reflect on Bailey’s words alone.

 The only criticism I have with this book – and it is a minor one compared to the positives of the whole – is that it sometimes seems repetitious.  I occasionally caught myself thinking that I had read nearly the same thought in a previous chapter; but perhaps that is to be expected, as these same lessons of grace go deeper and deeper as one progresses to the close of the book.  And in the end, that is what this journey has been about.  “That invitation to go deeper is the call of grace,” Bailey concludes.  “When we obey that call, we agree to let God be our guide.”

"River of Grace: Creative Passages Through Difficult Times"  By Susan Bailey,  Indiana:  Ave Maria Press, 2015.  193 pages.  Paperback: $14.12, Kindle and Nook: $10.49
 

About the Author

Susan Bailey wears many hats.  She is a marketing/advertising assistant for a local real estate firm in her area, but she is also very active in the Church as a writer, speaker and musician. 

In addition to having written several books,  Bailey hosts her own blogs, which can be found at louisamayalcottismypassion.com and beasone.org. She is also a frequent contributor to CatholicMom.com and the Association of Catholic Women Bloggers.   Her monthly column, “Be As One,” appears in the Catholic Free Press, the diocesan paper of the Diocese of Worcester, Mass.  Currently, she is an associate member of the Commission for Women of the Diocese of Worcester, for which she has previously served as both chairperson and secretary. 

A professional musician and graphic artist, Bailey released three CD’s and has performed on EWTN, CatholicTV and at World Youth Day in 2002.  She has served as a cantor at St. Luke the Evangelist Parish in Westborough, Mass., for more than 15 years.

Bailey is a graduate of Bridgewater State University in Massachusetts, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in elementary education, with concentrations in U.S. history and music.  She and her husband, Rich, have two grown children and currently reside in North Grafton, Mass.
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